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Latest MSG study in rural China shows that MSG contributes to obesity in humans, regardless of caloric intake and activity.

Ahmad, K. and K. Jahan.  Studies on the Preventative and Curative Action of Ascorbic Acid on the Neurological Toxicity of Monosodium Glutamate. Institute of Nutritional and Food Science - University of Dhaka.

Aizenman, E., Frosch, M.P., and Lipton, S.A. 1988. Responses Mediated by Excitatory Amino Acid Receptors in Solitary Retinal Ganglion Cells from Rat. J. Physiol 395: 75-91.

Arbogast, Lydia A. and James L. Voogt. 1990. Sex-Related Alterations in Hypothalamic Tyrosine Hydroxylase After Neonatal Monosodium Glutamate Treatment. Neuroendocrinology 52 (5): 460-7.

Arndt, T. et al. 1993. Reduced, Positive Nitrogen Balance and Elevated Plasma Free Fatty Acid Concentration in Growing, Glutamate-induced Obese Rats. Journal of Experimental Animal Science 36(1):12-8.

Aschner, M er al. 1990. Interactions of Methylmercury  with Rat Primary Astrocyte Cultures: Inhibition of Rubidium and Glutamate Uptake and Induction of Swelling. Brain Research 530 (2): 245-50.

Aust, L. et al. 1993.  Postprandial Thermogenesis of Rats With Glutamate Induced Obesity in Relation to Energy IntakeZeitschrift fur Ernahrungswissenschaft 32(1):71-3.

Banister, E. W. et al. 1978. Effect of High-Pressure Oxygen on Cellular Fine Structure, Ammonia and Glutamate Metabolism.   Underwater Physiology: 215-232.

Barbour, B. et al. 1991. Electrogenic Uptake in Glutamate and Aspartate into Glial Cells Isolated from the Salamander (Ambystoma) Retina. J Physiol 436: 169-183.

Bennett, Gary J. 1998. The Role of Glutamate in Chronic Inflammatory Pain and Painful Peripheral Neuropathies. Speaker, NIH National Meeting. The Glutamate Cascade: Common Pathways of Central Nervous System Disease States. May3-5, 1998.

Betraan, M.A. et al. 1992. Nitrogen Metabolism in Obesity Induced by Monosodium-L-Glutamate in Rats. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 16(8):555-64.

Botey, J. et al. 1988. Monosodium Glutamate and Skin Pathology in Pediatric Allergology. Allergology  and Immunopathology 16 (6) 425-428.

Broadwell, R.D. and Sofroniew. 1993.  Serum Proteins Bypass the Blood-Brain Fluid Barriers For Extracellular Entry to the Central Nervous System. Experimental Neurology 120:245-263.

Bruno, V. et al. 1994. Protective Action of Idebenone Again Excitotoxic Degeneration in Cultured Cortical Neurons. Neurosci Lett 178: 193-196.

Cammer, W et al. 1990. Reactive Gliosis in the Brains of Lewis Rats with Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis. Journal of Neuroimmunology 27 (2-3): 111-120.

Canfield, P.R. et al. 1992. Aspartame Exacerbates EEG Spike-wave Discharge in Children with Generalized Absence Epilepsy: A Double-blind Controlled Study. Neurology 42: 1000-1003.

Cangro, Charles Benjamin. 1986. Immunocytochemical and Biochemical Investigation into the Distribution and Metabolism of Glutamate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate Along the Spinal Sensory Axis. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University. Dissertation Abstracts Online. 47(2B): 4781.

Chan, P.H. et al. 1990. Attenuation of Glutamate-Induced Neuronal Swelling and Toxicity in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human CuZn-Superoxide Dismutase. Acta Neurochir Suppl 51: 245-7.

Cheung, W. T. et al. 1988. Neonatal Monosodium -L-Glutamate Treatment Reduced Lipolytic Response of Rat Epididymal Adipose Tissue. General Pharmacology 19 (4): 507-512.

Cho, Y. and S. Bannai. 1990. Uptake of Glutamate and Cysteine in C-6 Glioma Cells and in Cultured Astrocytes. Journal of Neurochemistry 55 (6): 2091-7.

Choi, D.W. 1988. Glutamate Neurotoxicity and Diseases of the Nervous System. Neuron 1: 623-634.

Choi, D.W. 1994. Glutamate Receptors and the Induction of Excitotoxic Neuronal Death. Prog. Brain. Res. 100: 47-51.

Choi, D. W. 1990.  The Role of Glutamate Neurotoxicity in Hypoxic-Ischemic Neuronal Death. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13:171-182.

Choi, Dennis W. 1998. Manipulating Glutamatergic Neurotransmission for Therapeutic Gains: The Example of Brain Ischemia. Speaker, NIH National Meeting. The Glutamate Cascade: Common Pathways of Central Nervous System Disease States. May3-5, 1998.

Conner-Kerr, Teresa Ann. 1992. A Possible Mechanism of Excitotoxicity: Autoregulation of Glutamate Release from Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Terminals. Ph.D. dissertation, East Carolina University. Dissertation Abstracts Online. 53(11B): 5571.

Coyle, J.T. and P. Puttfarcken. 1993. Oxidative Stress, Glutamate, and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Science 262: 689-695.

Danbolt, N.C. 2001.  Glutamate UptakeProgressive Neurobiology 65(1):1-105.

Dawson, R., Jr. and Z. Annau. 1983. A Behavioral Assessment of Arcuate Nucleus Damage After a Single Injection of Monosodium Glutamate. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology 5 (4): 399-406.

Dawson, R., Jr. et al. 1989. Age and Dose Dependent Effects of Neonatal Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Administration To Female Rats. Neurotoxicol.  Teratol. 11 (4) 331-337.

Dawson, R., Jr. et al. 1989. A Pharmacological Anaysis of Food Intake Regulation in Rats Treated Neonatally with Monosodium L-Glutamate (MSG). Pharmacol.  Biochem. Behav. 32 (2): 391-398.

Dawson, R., Jr. et al. 1997. Attenuation of Leptin-Mediated Effects by Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Induced Arcuate Nucleus Damage.  American Journal of Physiology

De Erausquin, G. A. et al. 1990. Gangliosides Normalize Distorted Single-Cell Intracellular Free CA Super (2+) Dynamics After Toxic Doses of Glutamate in Cerebellar Granule Cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 87 (20): 8017-8021.

De Groot, A. P. et al. 1988. Induction of Hyperplasia in the Bladder Epithelium of Rats by a Dietary Excess of Acid or Base: Implications for Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Testing. Food and Chemical Toxicology 26 (5): 425-434.

De Schutter, Erik, 1997. A New Functional Role for Cerebellar Long Term Depression. Progress in Brain Research 114:529-542.

Dolnikoff, M. S. et al. 1988. Neonatal Treatment with Monosodium Glutamate Increases Plasma Corticosterone in Rat.   Neuroendocrinology 48 (6): 645-649.

Dolnikoff, M. S. et al. 2001.  Decreased Lipolysis and Enhanced Glycerol and Glucose Utilization by Adipose Tissue Prior to Development of Obesity in Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) treated Rats.  Int. Journal of Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders.

During, M.J. and Spencer, D.D. 1993.  Extracellular Hippocampal Glutamate and Spontaneous Seizure in the Conscious Human BrainLancet 341:1607-0610.

Dzogas, Zoran. 1996.  In Vivo Activity of Canine Expiratory Bulbospinal Neurons is Differentially Affected by two Non-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antagonists. Croatian Medical Journal  37(1).

Eck, H. P. et al. 1990. Partial Recovery of Lymphocyte Activity in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma After Curative Surgical Treatment and Return of Plasma Glutamate Concentrations to Normal Levels. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 116(6): 648-50.

Erdo, S. L. and M. Schaefer. 1991. Memantine is Highly Potent in Protecting Cortical Cultures Against Excitotoxic Cell Death Evoked by Glutamate and N Methyl-D-AspartateEur. Journal of Pharmacology 198 (2-3): 215-218.

Favaron, M. et al. 1990. Down-regulation of Protein Kinase C Protects Cerebellar Granule Neurons in Primary Culture from Glutamate-Induced Neuronal Death. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87 (5): 1983-1987.

Fernandez-Aguado, C. et al. 1989. Liver Glutamate and Glutamine Concentration in Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis: Effect of GlutathioneBiochem. Chem. Carcinog., (Proc. Satell. Symp. 14th Int. Congr. Biochem. ) pp 203-9

Fernstrom, J.D. 2000.  Pituitary Hormone Secretion in Normal Male Humans: Acute Responses to a Large, Oral Dose of Monosodium Glutamate. Journal of Nutrition 130 (Suppl 4s):1053-7.

Fisher, R. S. 1991. Glutamate and Epilepsy. Frontiers of Clinical Neuroscience 11: 131-146.

Frandsen, A. et al. 1990. Novel Glutamate Antagonists Selectively Protect Against Kainic Acid Neurotoxicity in Cultured Cerebral Cortex NeuronsJournal of Neurochemistry 55 (5): 1821-1823.

Frandsen, A. and Arne Schousboe. 1991. Dantrolene Prevents Glutamate Cytotoxicity and Calcium Release From Intracellular Stores in Cultured Cerebral Corical Neurons. Journal of Neurochemistry 56 (3): 1075-8.

Frankel, Arthur et al. 1990. Role of Arginine 180 and Glutamic Acid 177 of Ricin Toxin A Chain in Enzymic Inactivation of Ribosomes. Molecular Cell Biology 10 (12) 6257-63.

Freese, A. et al. 1990. Characterization and Mechanism of Glutamate Neurotoxicity in Primary Striatal Cultures. Brain Research 521 (1-2): 254-264.

Fundytus, M.E., 2001. Glutamate Receptors and Nociception: Implications for the Drug Treatment of Pain. CNS Drugs 2001 Jan: 15(1): 29-58.

Furkawa, K. et al. 1997. The Actin-severing Protein Gelsolin Modulates Calcium Channel and NMDA Receptor Activities and Vulnerability to Excitotoxicity in Hippocampal Neurons. J. Neurosci 17: 8178-8186.

Gao, J. et al. 1994.  Transplacental Neurotoxic Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on Structures and Functions of Specific Brain Areas of Filial Mice. Sheng Li Hsueh Pao Acta Physiologica Sinica 46(1):44-51.

Gray, A.M., Rawls, S.M. Shippenberg, T.S., and McGinty, J.F. 1999. Kappa Opioid Agonist, U-69593, Decreases Acute Amphetamine-evoked Bahaviors andCalcium-dependent Dialysate Levels of Dopamine and Glutamate in the Ventral Striatum. J Neurochem 73: 1066-1074.

Greene, James G. 1998. Bioenergeetics and Excitotoxicity: An Examination of Neurotoxicity Secondary to Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibition. Ph.D. dissertation. The University of Rochester. Dissertation Abstracts Online. 59(03B): 0933.

Greenmayre, J. and Porter, R. 1994. Anatomy and Physiology of glutamate in the CNS. Neurol 44: s7-sl3.

Greenmayre, J. Timothy. 1998. Glutamatergic Mechanisms in the Cause and Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease. Speaker, NIH National Meeting. The Glutamate Cascade: Common Pathways of Central Nervous System Disease States. May3-5, 1998.

Hahn, J. S. et al. 1988. Central Mammalian Neurons Normally Resistant to Glutamate Toxicity Are Made Sensitive by Extracellular Ca Super (2+): Toxicity is blocked by the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Antagonist.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 85 (17) 6556-6560.

Halpain, S., Hipolito, A. and Saffer, L. 1998. Regulation of F-actin Stability in Dendritic Spines by Glutamate Receptors and Calcineurin. J Neurosci 18: 9835-9844.

Helton, D.R. et al. 1998.  Anxiolytic and Side-Effect Profile of LY354740: A Potent, Highly Selective, Orally Active Agonist for Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 284(2):651-60.

Himi, T. et al. 1990. Spider Toxin (JSTX-3) Inhibits the Convulsions Induced by Glutamate Agonists. J. Neural Transm. 80 (2): 95-104.

Hussain, M.M. et al. 1989. Characterization of Glutamate Dehydrogenase Isoproteins Purified From the Cerebellum of Normal Subjects and Patients with Degenerative Neurological Disorders, and From Human Neoplastic Cell Lines. Journal of Biol. Chemistry 264 (34): 20730-735.

Ishikawa, K et al. 1997. Hippocampal Degeneration Inducing Impairment of Learning in Rats: Model of Dementia? Behavioural Brain Research 83(1-2):39-44.

Janssen, Raelyn et al. 1991. Glutamate Neurotoxicity in the Developing Rat Cochlea: Physiological and Morphological Approaches.   Brain Research 552 (2): 255-64.

Jensen, Frances E. 1998. Role of Glutamate Receptor Maturation in Perinatal Brain Injury. Speaker, NIH National Meeting. The Glutamate Cascade: Common Pathways of Central Nervous System Disease States. May3-5, 1998.

Kato, S. et al. 1990. Gliotoxic Effects of Alpha- Aminodipic Acid Isomers on the Carp Retina: A Long Term Observation. Neuroscience 36 (1): 145-153.

Kayastha, Arvind M. et al. 1991. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Beta Subunit of Tryptophan Synthase From Salmonella Typhimurium.   Role of Active Site Glutamic Acid. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (12): 7618-25.

Kirchgessner, A. L. et al. 1997.  Excitotoxicity in the enteric nervous systemJournal of Neuroscience 17:8807-8816.

Kiskin, N. I. et al. 1989. Blocking Action of Nephalia Clavata Spider Toxin on Ionic Currents Activated by Glutamate and its Agonists in Isolated Hippocampal Neurons. Neurophysiology 21 (2): 110-116.

Klunk, W. E. et al. 1991. L Phosphoserine A Metabolite Elevated in Alzheimer's Disease Interacts with Specific L Glutamate Receptor SubtypesJournal of Neurochem 56 (6): 1997-2003.

Koh, B.K., et al. 1996. Effects of Cysteine on Free Radical Production and Protein Modification in Extruded Wheat Flour. Cereal Chem 73(1): 115-122.

Koh, Jaeyoung. 1989. Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Neurotoxicity in Murine Neuronal Cultures. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University. Dissertation Abstracts Online 50(12B): 5486.

Kristova, V. et al. 1998.  Early Postnatal Glutamate treatment Results in Altered Vascular Responsiveness to Seratonin and Noradrenaline in Adult Rats. Endocrine Regulations 32:133-139.

Kubo, T. et al. 1993.  Neonatal Glutamate Can Destroy the Hippocampal CA1 Structure and Impair Discrimination Learning in RatsBrain Research 616:311-314.

Kurozumi, K. et al. 1990. Generation of Inositol Phosphates, Cytosolic Ca2+, and Secretion of Noradrenaline in PC12 Cells Treated with Glutamate. FEBS Lett. 270 (1-2): 225-8.

Lipton, S. and Rosenberg, P. 1994. Excitatory Amino Acids as a Final Common Pathway for Neurologic Disorders. New England Journal of Medicine. 330: 613-622.

Lipton, Stuart A. 1998. Excitotoxic Apoptosis and Necrosis in AIDS Dementia and Stroke: Potential Treatment with NMDA Open-channel Blockers and Nitric Oxide Related Species. Speaker, NIDA meeting, The Glutamate Cascade. Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School.

Liu, W. K. et al. 1989. Effects of Neonatal Monosodium-L-Glutamate Treatment on Rat Alveolar MacrophagesChemical Biological Interactions 69 (2-3): 193-201.

Liu, M. T. et al. 1999. Identification and characterization of Glucoresponsive Neurons in the Enteric Nervous SystemJournal of Neuroscience 19:10305-10317.

Lovinger, David M. et al. 1990. Ethanol Inhibition of Neuronal Glutamate Receptor Function. Ann. Med. 22 (4): 247-52.

Lundberg A/S, H. 2002.  Data on Ebixa for Treatment of Alzheimer's DiseaseH.Lundberg A/S Press Release #73 Date 22-07-2002

Machado, U. F. et al. 1993.  Decreaeed Glucose Transporter GLUT 4 Content in Insulin-Sensitive Tissues of Obese Aurothioglucose- and Monosodium Glutamate-Treated Mice. Hormone and Metabolic Research 25(9):462-5.

Magalhaes, J. R. 1989. Ammonium Assimilation in Different Plant Species as Affected by Nitrogen Form and pH Control in Solution Culture. Fertilizer Research 21 (1): 1-6.

Margarinos, A. M. et al.  1988. Regulation of the Central Nervous System-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Rats After Neonatal Treatment With Monosodium Glutamate. Neuroendocrinology 48 (2): 105-111.

Marc, R. E. and Lam, D.M.K. 1981. Uptake of Aspartic and Glutamic Acid by Photoreceptors in Goldrish Retina. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 78: 7185-7189.

Marinez, F. et al. 1993. Neuroexcitatory Amino Acid Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid During Migraine Attacks. Cephalagia 13(2):89-93.

Maulucci-Gedde, M and D. W. Choi. May 1987. Coritical Neurons Exposed to Glutamate Rapidly Leak Preloaded Chromium. Experimental Neurology 2: 420-429.

Max, Mitchell B. 1998. Effect of Glutamate Blockers on Human Pain. Speaker, NIDA meeting, The Glutamate Cascade. Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health.

McDonald, J. W. and M.V Johnston.  1993. Excitatory Amino Acid Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain. NIDA Research Monograph 133:185-205.

McMahon, Harvey T. et al. 1990. Alpha-Latrotoxin Releases Both Vesicular and Cytoplasmic Glutamate From Isolated Nerve Terminals. Journal of Neurochemistry 55 (6) 2039-47.

Miaskowiak, B. and M. Partyka. 1993. Effects of Neonatal Treatment with MSG Monosodium Glutamate on Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Adult Male Rats.   Histology and Histopathology 8(4):731-4.

Miaskowiak, B. and M. Partyka. 1993. Effect of Perinatal Administration of Monosodium Glutamate MSG on the Reproductive System of the Male Rat. Endokrynologia Polska 44 (4):497-505.

Michaels, R. L. and S. M. Rothman. 1990. Glutamate Neurotoxicity in Vitro: Antagonist Pharmacology and Intracellular Calcium Concentrations. Journal of Neuroscience 10 (1): 283-292.

Michaelis, E. K. 1990. Glutamate Receptor Changes in Brain Synaptic Membranes From Human Alcoholics. Neurochem.   Research 15 (11): 1055-63.

Milani, D. et al. 1991.  Excitatory Amino-Acid Induced Alterations of Cytoplasmic Free Calcium in Individual Cerebellar Granule Neurons: Role in Neurotoxicity. J. Neurosci. Res. 28 (3): 434-41.

Miller, S. M. and B. Magasanik.  1990. Role of NAD-Linked Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Nitrogen Metabolism in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Journal of Bacteriology 172(9): 4927-35.

Miyamoto, M et al. 1989. Antioxidants Protect Against Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in a Neuronal Cell Line. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy 250 (3) 1132-1140.

Mohammed, A. K. et al.  1990.  Behavioural Deficits and Seratonin Depletion in Adult Rats After Transient Infant Nasal Viral InfectionNeuroscience 35 (2): 355-63.

Morrison, John H. 1998. Glutamate Receptor Plasticity in the Hippocampus: Implications for Aging. Speaker, NIDA meeting, The Glutamate Cascade Fishberg Research Center for Neurobiology and Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Mural, R. J. et al. 1990. Examination of the Intersubunit Interaction Between Glutamate-48 and Lysine-168 of Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase by Site-Directed Mutagenisis. J. Biol. Chemistry 265(11): 6501-6505.

Murphy, T. H. et al.  1990. Immature Cortical Neurons are Uniquely Sensitive To Glutamate Toxicity by Inhibition of Cystine UptakeFASEB Journal 4 (6): 1624-1633.

Murphy, T. H. et al. 1991. Enhanced NAD (P) H:Quinone Reductase Activity Prevents Glutamate Toxicity Produced by Oxidative Stress. Journal of Neurochemistry 56 (3): 990-995.

Murphy, T. H et al. 1989. Glutamate Toxicity in a Neuronal Cell Line Involves Inhibition of Cystine Transport Leading to Oxidative Stress. Neuron 2 (6): 1547-58.

Murphy, T.H. and J. M. Baraban. 1990. Glutamate Toxicity In  Immature Cortical Neurons Precedes Development of Glutamate Receptor Currents. Dev. Brain Research 57 (1): 146-150.

Mytilineou, C et al. 1997. L-(-)Desmethyiselegeline, a Metabolite of Selegeline (L-(-)-deprenyl, Protects Mesencephalic Dopamine Neurons From Excitotoxicity in Vitro. J Neurochem 68: 434-436.

Miyamoto, M. and Coyle J. 1990. Idebenone Attenuates Neuronal Degeneration Induced by Intrastriatal Injection of Excitotoxins. Exp Neurol 108: 38-45.

Miyamoto, M. et al. 1989. Antioxidants Protect Against Glutamate-induced Cytotoxicity in a Neuronal Cell Line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 250: 1132-1140.

Murphy, Timothy H. 1989. Glutamate Toxicity in a Neuronal Cell Line Involves Inhibition of Cystine Uptake Leading to Oxidative Stress. Ph.D. dissertation. The Johns Hopkins University. Dissertation Abstracts Online. 50(07B): 2863.

Nakanishi, Koji, et al. 1990. Philanthotoxin-433 (PHTX-433), A Non-competitive Glutamate Receptor Inhibitor. Pure Applied Chemistry 62 (7): 1223-30.

Nenoff, P. et al. 1993. In Vivo Assessment of Insulin Binding in Different Organs of Growing and Adult Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology 101(4):215-21.

Nishimura, Atsushi. 1990.  Neonatal Glutamate-Induced Cerebral Cortical Degeneration in RatsNichidai Igaku Zasshi 49 (12): 1131-9.

Nowak, L., Bregestovski, P. et al. 1984. Magnesium Gates Glutamate-activated Channels in Mouse Central Neurones. Nature 307: 462-465.

O' Brien, J. et al. 1984. Toxicity of Maillard Reaction Products of Monosodium Glutamate and Glucose in Rats. Irish Journal of Food Science and Technology 8 (1): 77.

O' Brien,  J. and R. Walker. 1988. Toxicological Effects of Dietary Maillard Reaction Products in the Rat. Food and Chemical Toxicology 26 (9): 775-784.

O’Hearn, E. and Molliver, M.E. 1999. Neurotoxins and Neuronal Death: An Animal Model of Excitotoxicity. In V.E. Koliatsos (ed): Cell Death and Diseases of the Nervous System. Totowa, Humana Press. pp 221-245.

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Olney, J. et al. 1998. Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration in Alzheimers Disease. Arch Neurol 54: 1234-1240.

Olney, J.W., Wozniak, D.F., Farber, N.B. 1997. Excitotoxic Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer Disease, New Hypothesis and New Therapeutic Strategies. Arch Neurol Oct: 54(10): 1234-1240.

Olney, J.W. et al. 1996.  Increasing Brain Tumor Rates: Is there a Link to Aspartame? Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 55:1115-23.

Olney, J. W.1994. Excitotoxins in Foods.   Neurotoxicology 15:535-44.

Olney, J. W. 1990. Excitotoxin Mediated Neuron Death in Youth and Old AgeProgress in Brain Research 86:37-51.

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Olney, J.W. 1969. Glutamate-induced retinal degeneration in neonatal miceJournal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 28:455-474.

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Orpana, Arto K. 1990. Ethanol-Induced Inhibition of Testosterone Biosynthesis in Rat Leydig Cells: Role of L-Glutamate and Pyruvate. Journal of Steroid Biochem. 36 (5): 473-8.

Pike, R.N., D. Bagarozzi Jr and J. Travis. 1997. Immunological cross-reactivity of the Major Allergen from Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium Perenne), L01 pI, and the Cysteine Proteinase, Bromelain. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 1123: 412-414.

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Portais, J. C. et al. 1991. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Metabolism.  Applications of Proton and 13C NMR to the Study of Glutamate Metabolism in Cultured Glial Cells and Human Brain In Vivo.   Biochimie 73 (1): 93-7.

Privat, Alain et al. 1990. Neuronal Protection by Phenycyclidines: In Vitro Studies. Actual. Chim. Ther. 17: 187-200.

Pulvirenti, Luigi. 1998. Glutamate During the Natural History of Psychostimulant Dependence: Synaptic Plasticity and Medications Development. Speaker, NIDA meeting, The Glutamate Cascade. University of Rome – Tor Vergata, Italy.

Rao, G. S. and K. P. Pandya. 1989. Release of 2-Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Products From Glutamate or Deoxyribonucleic Acid by 1, 2, 4-Benzenetriol or Hrdroquinone in the Presence of Copper Ions. Toxicology 59 (1): 59-65.

Rawls, S.M., McGinty, J.F., 1998. Presynaptic Kappa Opioid and Muscarinic Receptors Inhibit the Calcium-dependent Component of Evoked Glutamate Release from Striatal Synaptosomes. J Neurochem. 73: 1058-1065.

Rawls, S.M., McGinty, J.F. 1998. Kappa Receptor Activation Attenuates L-trans-PDC-evoked Glutamate Levels in the Striatum. J Neurochem 70: 626-634.

Rigdon, G. C. et al. 1989. Effect of Perinatal Monosodium Glutamate Administration on Visual Evoked Potentials of Juvenile and Adult Rats. Neuro-Toxicology and Teratology 11 (2): 121-128.

Roberts, H.J. 1988. Reactions Attributed to Aspartame-containing Products: 551 Cases. J App Nutr 40: 85-94.

Roberts, H.J. 1995. Aspartame and Headache. Neurology 45: 1631-1633.

Roberts, H.J. 1988. Aspartame (NutraSweet®)-associated Epilepsy. Clin Res 36: 349A.

Roberts, H.J. 1988 Complications Associated with Aspartame (NutraSweet®) in Diabetes. Clin Res 3: 489A.

Roberts, H.J. 1991. Joint Pain Associated with Aspartame Use. Townsend letter for Doctors. May: 375-376.

Roberts, H.J., 1993 Aspartame-associated Dry Mouth (Xerostomia). Townsend letter for Doctors. February: 201-202.

Rochelle, Lori G. et al. 1990. Chlordecone Impairs Sodium-Stimulated l-(3h) Glutamate Transport and Mobility of 16-Doxyl Stearate in Rat Liver Plasma Vesicles. Toxicol. Appl. Pharacol. 105 (2): 234-42.

Rogawski, Michael E. 1998. Glutamate Neurotransmission in Epilepsy: New Treatment Strategies. Speaker, NIDA meeting, The Glutamate Cascade. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and stroke, National Institutes of Health.

Rosenberg, P.A., and E. Aizenman. 1989. Hundred-fold Increase in Neuronal Vulnerability to Glutamate Toxicity in Astrocyte-Poor Cultures of Rat Cerebral Cortex. Neuroscience Letters 103 (2): 162-168. 116 (3) 399.

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